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موسسه آسیب های اجتماعی ستایشگران - تاریخچه مددكاری اجتماعی در حوزه بهزیستی و رفاه اجتماعی (بخش اول)
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درباره وبلاگ


وبلاگ موسسه آسیب های اجتماعی ستایشگران به شماره ثبت 174 واقع در زاهدان با اهداف کاهش آسیب و مواد مخدر ایدز که از جمله کارهای موفق این موسسه افتتاح اولین مرکز DIC (مرگز کذری معتادین ) جنوب شرق کشور تحت حمایت معاونت امور فرهنگی و پیشگیری بهزیستی س و ب ادرس مرکز زاهدان خیابان هیرمند شمالی بین هیرمند47 و 49 که این مرکز توانسته با تحت پوشش قراردادن بیش از 400 معتاد گذری در یه سال گذشته در یکی از محله ای محروم شهر زاهدان امار خوب و قابل توجهی از خود به جای گذارد . ضمنا تمام سوالات شما رادر مورد ایدز-اعتیاد-آسیب های اجتماعی- مهارت های زندگی - ترک اعتیاد - و بیماری ها جوابگو می باشد . تلفن های تماس : 05414508964 و همچنین در زمینه ترک اعتیاد و خدمات مشاوره ایی و حمایتی ویژه معتادین در شهر زاهدان به صورت رایگان همکاری مینماید

مدیر وبلاگ : عظیم جان آبادی
مقدمه:

     مددكاری اجتماعی یكی از حرفه‌های تعیین‌كننده در تحقق رفاه اجتماعی و بهزیستی افراد جامعه است. اگر رفاه اجتماعی را به مفهوم گسترده آن در نظر بگیریم، این حرفه می‌تواند بر تمامی جنبه‌های زندگی آحاد جامعه تأثیر بگذارد. بی‌تردید تمركز ویژه بر مددكاری در حوزه بهزیستی و رفاه اجتماعی و تلاش برای ارتقای آن به صورت غیرمستقیم بر كیفیت رفاه اجتماعی در جامعه اثر خواهند گذاشت. به این منظور ضرورت دارد حرفه مددكاری اجتماعی دورنمای فعالیت‌های خود را در این حوزه به طور مشخص ترسیم نماید و براساس آن نسبت به برنامه‌ریزی اقدام كند.

  تاریخچه مددكاری در جهان:

     كشور انگلستان نخستین كشوری است كه قدم‌های اولیه را در جهت سازمان دادن به خدمات اجتماعی برداشته است. قانون موسوم به فقرای الیزابت كه در سال 1598 در انگلستان تصویب شد یكی از ابتدایی‌ترین مداخله‌های مستقیم دولتی در ارایه خدمات اجتماعی محسوب می‌شود. این قانون سال‌ها بعد تحت تأثیر افكار، نوشته‌ها و نظریات نویسندگان و متفكرین اقتصادی و اجتماعی تغییر كرد. در مجموع از سال 1600 به بعد در جهان عواملی مطرح می‌شوند كه عنایت و توجه به رفاه اجتماعی و به تبع آن مددكاری اجتماعی به عنوان پلی بین برنامه‌های رفاهی و استفاده‌كنندگان از آنها یعنی انسان‌ها ضرورت پیدا می‌كند. در سال 1878 كشور آلمان قانون تأمین اجتماعی را به اجرا در آورد و تا سال 1920 تقریباً در سراسر اروپا این قانون پذیرفته شد. در سال 1899 اولین مدرسه خدمات اجتماعی در هلند و در سال 1904 مدارس مددكاری اجتماعی در آلمان، سوییس، بریتانیا و آمریكا شروع به فعالیت كردند. قانون تأمین اجتماعی در سال 1933 با هدف حمایت از خانواده‌های بی‌سرپرست و بدسرپرست و آسیب‌دیدگان درآمریكا تصویب شد و در حال حاضر آموزش مددكاری در سطح دانشگاه‌های كشورهای مختلف و سطح بین‌الملل به نحو وسیعی جریان دارد.


تاریخچه مددكاری در ایران:

     كشور ما نیز یكی از كهن‌ترین سرزمین‌هایی است كه اندیشه‌ها و باورهای انسان دوستی و نیكوكاری و دستگیری از مردم نیازمند در آن بر پایه اعتقادات دینی و ارزش‌های فرهنگی بنا شده است. با این پیشینه تاریخی و فرهنگی خدمات حمایتی و بهزیستی در كشور ایران اغلب توسط افراد خیر و موسسات خیریه با زمینه مذهبی ارایه می‌شد. ازاواسط سال 1340 به بعد سازمان‌ها و موسساتی نظیر سازمان شاهنشاهی خدمات اجتماعی، جمعیت خیریه فرح پهلوی، جمعیت شیر و خورشید سرخ ایران، انجمن ملی حمایت از كودكان و انجمن‌ها و موسسات دیگر مسؤلیت ارایه خدمات حمایتی، توانبخشی به افراد نیازمند و معلولین را بر عهده داشتند. در سال‌های قبل از انقلاب در سال 1347 برای اولین بار خدمات اجتماعی به صورت سازمان‌یافته در مجموعه وظایف دولت در برنامه عمرانی چهارم مطرح گردیده است. در نهایت در سال 1353 وزارت رفاه اجتماعی در یك قالب منطقی به وجود آمد كه در سال 1355 به وزارت بهداری و بهزیستی تغییر نام داد و فعالیت آن در قالب دو معاونت بهزیستی و دو دفتر امور خدمات توانبخشی و امور خدمات رفاهی ادامه یافت. آموزش حرفه‌های مرتبط با خدمات اجتماعی نیز در سال 1337 توسط خانم فرمانفرمائیان كه كارشناس امور اجتماعی سازمان ملل متحد بود در آموزشگاه عالی خدمات اجتماعی تهران با امكاناتی ناچیز آغاز شد و فارغ‌التحصیلان آن موفق به دریافت دانشنامه فوق‌دیپلم در خدمات اجتماعی می‌شدند. در سال 1344 مدت تحصیل به چهار سال افزایش پیدا كرد و فارغ‌التصحیلان درجه لیسانس خدمات اجتماعی را اخذ می‌كردند. در سال 1349 دوره فوق‌لیسانس مددكاری اجتماعی با عنوان مدیریت خدمات اجتماعی نیز شكل گرفت. پس از انقلاب اسلامی ایران، نام آموزشگاه به دانشكده خدمات تغییر یافت. سرانجام تعلیم و تربیت مددكاران اجتماعی در چارچوب گرایش خدمات اجتماعی در دانشكده علوم اجتماعی دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی متمركز شد و انتخاب دانشجویان از طریق آزمون سراسری انجام شد.

      پس از انقلاب بخش بهزیستی یك‌بار دیگر تحول یافت و براساس مصوبه هیأت وزیران در مورخه 25/4/58 سازمان‌های رفاهی و خدماتی تحت نظر وزارت بهداری و بهزیستی در هم ادغام گردید. این سازمان‌ها عبارت بودند از: سازمان رفاه ملی خانواده، سازمان بهزیستی و آموزشی كودكان و نوجوانان، سازمان ملی رفاه ناشنوایان ایران، سازمان ملی رفاه نابینایان، سازمان زنان، انجمن ملی حمایت كودكان، انجمن حمایت معلولین، انجمن توانبخشی، واحد حمایت از خانواده‌های بی‌سرپرست سازمان شاهنشاهی خدمات اجتماعی سابق و جمعیت حمایت از اطفال بی‌سرپرست.
     براساس تلاش‌های بی‌وقفه دكتر فیاض‌بخش برای ایجاد سازمانی مستقل برای ارایه خدمات گسترده و منظم به نیازمندان جامعه، در 24/3/1359 لایحه قانونی تشكیل سازمان بهزیستی كشور تصویب شد.





نوع مطلب : مددکاری اجتماعی، 
برچسب ها :
لینک های مرتبط :
عظیم جان آبادی
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